Understanding the Habaki: Collar of Japanese Swords

"Understanding the Habaki: Collar of Japanese Swords" delves into the functional and decorative significance of this essential sword component.

What is the Habaki?

The habaki is a metal collar found around the base of the blade, just below the hand guard. It plays a crucial role in keeping the blade securely in its scabbard and supporting the hilt. Habaki: Collar of Japanese Swords can also be simple and practical or made from fine metals with intricate carvings. Though often overlooked, the habaki is vital for a Japanese sword’s function and aesthetics.

Why is the Habaki Important?

Japanese swords gain renown for their exquisite blades, which showcase intricate patterns and meticulously polished surfaces. The habaki helps in mounting the sword correctly by allowing the blade to sit loosely in the scabbard. This prevents the polished blade from touching the wood or cutting edge from hitting the scabbard, unlike Western scabbards that fit tightly around the blade.

Key Characteristics of the Habaki

Characteristics of the Habaki

Metal and Construction:

Traditionally, craftsmen made habaki from iron, copper, gold, or shakudo. Modern artisans often also use silver or Japanese brass for habaki. Skilled craftsmen hand-forge high-quality habaki to fit the blade perfectly, but mass-produced versions may not achieve the same precise fit.

Design and Function:

The habaki has a wedge shape and fits at the top of the blade’s tang.It supports both the hilt and the blade, ensuring the blade stays securely in the scabbard.The habaki also fits tightly in the mouth of the scabbard, preventing the blade from scraping against the inside.

Size and Proportions:

The size of the habaki must match the blade’s shape and style. Typically, the height of the habaki is about 80% of the blade’s width at the notches. For older or thinner blades, the proportions may vary to maintain a good fit.

Craftsmanship and Decoration:

Habaki can feature angular shapes and smooth surfaces, with artisans decorating some using techniques such as file work and chisel work.

Types of Habaki Collar of Japanese Swords

Types of Habaki Collar of Japanese Swords

Hitoe-Habaki: A One-Piece Design Fitting Closely to the Blade and Scabbard

In Hitoe-Habaki, there is a collar that surrounds both the blade as well as the scabbard and this collar is one-piece. This type provides a good firm connection and because of the basic stability, is the most popular type of habaki in use today among Japanese swords.

Niju-Habaki: A Two-Piece Design with an Outer Jacket for Added Support

The Niju-Habaki consists of two pieces: an inner collar and an outer jacket. This design provides additional support and stability for the blade, making it ideal for larger swords that require extra reinforcement.

Etchu-Kise-Habaki: A One-Piece Habaki Designed to Look Like a Two-Piece

Etchu-Kise-Habaki is a one-piece collar which is made to look like a two piece collar by the forging by the craftsmen. This style is a blend of concept of less number of pieces and better appearance as the structure indicates.

Daitsuki-Habaki: Features a Base Called Dai

The Daitsuki-Habaki includes a base, or dai, that adds extra support and stability. This feature distinguishes it from other habaki types, providing a more robust and secure fit for the blade and scabbard.

Yujo-Habaki: Has File Marks Along Its Base, Often Combined with Carvings

The Yujo-Habaki is characterized by its file marks along the base, which are sometimes enhanced with intricate carvings. This decorative approach adds a unique and personalized touch to the habaki, making it a distinctive feature.

Kamon-iri Habaki: Engraved with Family Crests

The Kamon-iri Habaki is adorned with engraved family crests, or kamon. These engravings often match the menuki on the hilt, adding a personalized and historical element to the sword, reflecting the lineage and heritage of the owner.

Kawarigata-Habaki: Irregularly Shaped with Various Designs Like Mountains or Waves

The Kawarigata-Habaki features irregular shapes and designs, such as scalloped edges, mountains, or waves. This type of habaki showcases the creativity and artistic expression of the maker, making each piece unique and visually striking.


The habaki is not as famous as other sword fittings but is an indispensable part of Japanese swords and their appearance. It protects the blade, ensures that it does not come out of the sheath and holds the handle/grip. Today’s habaki makers are not resting on their laurels and to the existing classy and functional blade collars can actually be classified as art forms.

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