Menuki: Ornamental Sword-Grip Fittings

Explore Menuki: ornamental fittings on Japanese swords, evolving from functional to decorative, embodying rich sword-making traditions.

Introduction to Menuki: Sword-Grip Ornaments:

Menuki, the intricate ornaments adorning the grips of Japanese swords and daggers, hold a rich history that intertwines artistry and utility. Craftsmen initially created menuki as functional components to secure the Menuki: Ornamental Sword tang to its hilt. Over centuries, these metal fittings evolved significantly in both form and purpose. Menuki transitioned from essential structural elements to highly decorative art pieces, cherished by collectors and enthusiasts alike. This evolution reflects the exquisite craftsmanship and cultural significance of Japanese sword-making traditions, making menuki prized possessions that capture the essence of historical and artistic heritage.

Key Takeaways

Types of Menuki

  • Initial Function: Menuki were initially the ornamental head of a metal mekugi peg, securing the tang on the hilt, but later evolved into a purely decorative element.
  • Makoto-Menuki: Makoto-menuki are early menuki that serve both as a menuki and a mekugi peg.
  • Sora-Menuki:The sora-menuki, a purelyMenuki: Ornamental Sword, is the most common type seen on most Japanese swords and daggers today.

Different Types of Menuki:

Different Types of Menuki


Makoto menuki, meaning “true menuki,” served both as an ornamental headpiece and as a mekugi peg to secure the hilt on the tang.Commonly found on early ceremonial tachi, these menuki featured additional tawara-byo (straw bag-shaped rivets).


Tsubogasa-menuki, or “pot-hat menuki,” developed from early menuki that served as both a peg and an ornament. Naga-menuki, identified by their rounded shape, were originally positioned symmetrically on either side of the hilt. Later, they became purely decorative and were positioned asymmetrically.

In’yō-Kon Menuki

In’yō-kon menuki are two-piece menuki that served as mekugi pegs, featuring a hollow negative stem (in-kon) and a solid positive stem (yō-kon) to prevent them from falling out. While originally functional, they later became purely decorative.


Naga-menuki, also known as ō-menuki, feature the form of a kenukigata-tachi openwork design. This large type of menuki was inspired by the unique hilt opening of the kenukigata-tachi swords.


Sora-menuki, meaning “empty or imitation menuki,” emerged purely ornamental during the Nanbokucho period. Also known as kazari-menuki, they lack a stem or root.


Dashi-menuki, or “exposed menuki,” are typically found on unwrapped, same-covered hilts of tanto daggers and koshigatana. These menuki can be attached using sticky lacquer or positioned above braided hilt wrapping, secured with a cord.


The Yagyū school popularized Gyaku-menuki, meaning “reversed menuki,” attaching it in the traditional manner but positioning it in reverse to ensure the menuki protruded into the palm of the swordsman.

A Brief History of Menuki

A Brief History of Menuki

Menuki developed from the mekugi peg, which secures the tang in the hilt through the mekugi-ana opening. Over time, menuki evolved into purely decorative elements while providing a better grip at the hilt. In the Momoyama period, elaborate menuki became rewards for valued retainers, leading to their production from fine materials.By the Edo period, samurai wore a daisho fitted with mitokoromono, a set of matching menuki, kozuka, and kogai, often crafted by the renowned Goto family.Menuki became collectible items, exchanged as gifts among wealthy samurai on special occasions.


Menuki, the ornamental fittings on Japanese swords and daggers, beautifully embody the blend of functionality and artistry in Japanese craftsmanship. The evolution of menuki, from essential structural elements like the makoto-menuki to purely decorative pieces such as the sora-menuki, reflects the rich history and cultural significance of Japanese sword-making.Over time, menuki transitioned from practical components to cherished art pieces and collectibles. This transformation was particularly notable during the Edo period, when renowned artisans like the Goto family crafted them with sophisticated techniques.Today, menuki remain prized for their historical and artistic value, capturing the essence of Japan’s heritage.

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